The advantages of a greenhouse over open ground are obvious: these are much more stable conditions inside the greenhouse, which allow you to get high yields of vegetables, this is the convenience of caring for plants and the soil, this is much lower costs of manual labor, because you do not need to worry about sheltering plants in case of cold weather or protection from north wind, hail, freezing rain.
As for the temperature, it can be adjusted by tightly closing or opening the door, respectively, raising or lowering the temperature.
In addition, you are guaranteed to get an earlier harvest of vegetables, you will be able to grow vegetables that simply will not grow in the open ground in your region, and it is also possible to extend the season of fresh fruit consumption, because in the greenhouse you can get not one, but two or more crops.
To begin with, let’s talk about how to prepare the soil in the greenhouse for the new season. This can be done both in the fall and in the spring, but usually in the fall, all the greenhouse owners do is remove debris from the surface of the soil, and they postpone all the work until the spring. In the spring, you need to make every effort to prepare the soil for growing vegetables.
For this, the soil needs to be disinfected, renewed or improved, dug up, loosened. If possible, it is better to renew the soil in the greenhouse. Usually, the soil is renewed by removing a layer 12-15 cm thick and replacing it with a new one, but not everyone has the strength for this. If it is not updated, it can be improved, but first it should be disinfected.
Ordinary potassium permanganate is suitable for disinfection. Make a pink solution of potassium permanganate, heat it to 90 degrees and pour the soil well, spending about a bucket of solution per square meter of soil.
After processing, the soil must be covered with a film for a day to steam well. So you will destroy harmful organisms, and at the same time raise the temperature of the soil. Next, it is necessary to increase the nutrient content of the soil, so when digging the soil, you need to add a bucket of compost or humus and a tablespoon of nitroammofoska per square meter of soil. It remains to loosen the soil by breaking up all lumps and remove the remains of weeds or parts of plants, if any, and the greenhouse for vegetables will be ready.
Planting seedlings in a greenhouse
- Before planting vegetables, you need to decide how to plant these vegetables in the greenhouse. First you need to make beds. Usually, in a greenhouse with a width of 160-165 cm, it is quite possible to make two beds with a width of 65 cm, leaving a passage of 30-35 cm between them, which is quite enough to move freely through the greenhouse and take care of the plants. It is quite possible to make one bed in the center with passages on the sides, it is especially convenient to do so when the greenhouse allows a person to be in it at full height.
- In the greenhouse itself, cultures that prefer good, full lighting, be sure to place them on the south side. Crops that require full pollination like coolness more than heat, place them closer to the front door, so that if possible they can be provided with an influx of fresh air simply by opening this door. Alternate the plants in descending order, that is, start with cabbage, followed by cucumbers, tomatoes, then radishes, carrots and other.
- High greenhouses, where you can place your entire height, are extremely convenient, you can also place crops in them according to the principle of growth, that is, place all tall plants in the center, then place medium-sized plants and, finally, short plants. Such an arrangement will provide all cultures with light, no one will overshadow anyone else.
Optimal conditions in the greenhouse
- After you have prepared the soil, made beds or one bed in the center, determine what the humidity level should be in the greenhouse.
- For a greenhouse, temperature and humidity are important conditions if the soil is in order. It should be known that the highest need for moisture in vegetable crops is observed during the period of their most active development and growth. During this period, soil moisture should be at the level of 85-90%. During fruit ripening, humidity should be at the level of 80-85%.
- Of course, the humidity in the greenhouse should be such that certain plants like it. Let’s say cucumbers: they need regular, but very moderate watering. For tomatoes, watering is small, but, on the contrary, as abundant as possible, so it is difficult to grow cucumbers and tomatoes in the same greenhouse, you have to delimit the greenhouse by separating the beds with a film, or use separate greenhouses. In this case, small, compact, cheap greenhouses are just a lifesaver for those who want to grow tomatoes and cucumbers on the same plot.
- Watering should also be done wisely, given that it is usually quite hot inside and the air and soil are well warmed. It is impossible to water vegetables with cold water, this can cause a shock to the root system, it will seem to fall asleep for a while. It is necessary to water vegetables with water at room temperature, the optimal temperature of irrigation water is 23-25 degrees.
- Air humidity also plays an important role, as does soil moisture. Usually the optimal air humidity for cucumbers, eggplant anise, tomatoes, and pepper have a level of 50-60%.
- As for the temperature, it should not exceed 30 degrees during the day, otherwise the plants will feel a shock, and the pollen may become sterile and pollination will not happen. At night, the temperature in the greenhouse should not drop below 10 degrees, as this will have a negative effect on the plants.
- Try to ensure that the soil is not wet at night, otherwise condensation can form, which will lead to outbreaks of fungal infection.